The need for feeding
Bees need feeding because the beekeeper collects their honey, which is their natural food. In our climates, where winters are often severe, the bee keeper must therefore provide substitute food. Another reason is that nectar flows can vary strongly from region to region and according to the season, so that feeding is necessary to maintain breeding activities and to meet food requirements. Additional food is also needed for the formation of new colonies and for breeding queen bees.
Due to the major importance of carbohydrate-based food to meet the energy needs of mature bees, the rest of this paper deals with currently available bee feeds.